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Honours / Core Course (CC)

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Unit 1: Physiology of Digestion 
Structural organisation and function of gastro-intestinal tract:  Mech anical and chemical digestion of  food, absorption of Carbohydrates, Lipids and Proteins in  Human

Q. Give a schematic presentation on disposition of short peptides in intestinal epithelial cells.

Peptides are absorbed together with a proton supplied by an apical sodium/hydrogen exchanger (NHE) by the peptide transporter 1 (PepT1). Absorbed peptides are digested by cytosolic proteases, and any amino acids that are surplus to the needs of the epithelial cell are transported into the bloodstream by a series of basolateral transport proteins.

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Unit 2: Physiology of Respiration 
Mechanism of Respiration, Respiratory volumes and capacities, transport of Oxygen and Carbon dioxide in blood, Dissociation curves and the factors influencing it, respiratory pigments; Carbon monoxide poisoning

Q.How configuration of protein in haemoglobin helps in oxygen binding?
i)Due to the quaternary structure Hb shows close affinity to oxygen via shifting the relationship of 4 component poplypeptide chains.
ii)In relaxed or R-state it favours oxygen binding and in tense or T-state it decreases oxygen binding.
iii)Transition from one state to another involves breaking or forming of salt bridges between the polypeptide chains.
Iv)More over Fe+2  but not Fe+3 can easily release oxygen from oxy-Hb, when binds β chain comes more close together and move further apart when oxygen is detached.

Unit 3: Physiology of Circulation 
Structure and functions of haemoglobin; Blood clotting system; Haematopoiesis; Basic steps and its regulation; Blood groups; ABO and Rh factor

Q.What is fibrinolysis?
Fibrinolysis or the destruction of fibrin clot and many other clotting factors, occur when a plasma protein profibrinolysin (also known as Plasminogen) is activated by factor XII, lysosomal enzymes or by the vascular endothelium itself. This happens within a day or two after clotting has occurred. The profibrinolysin is activated as fibrinolysin or plasmin and it helps in dissolving the clot.

Unit 4: Physiology of Heart 
Coronary Circulation, Structure and working of conducting myocardial fibres, Origin and conduction of cardiac impulses; Cardiac Cycle and cardiac output

Q.What do you mean by Ventricular diastole? 
The ventricles are in diastole when the two auricles are contacting and it lasts for about 0.5 seconds. The ventricular diastole is divided into 3 phases:
i) Proto-diastolic period (duration 0.04 seconds). During this phase the ventricular pressure falls rapidly and the semilunar valves close. This produces second heart sound.
ii) Isometric or Isovolumetrie relaxation period (duration 0.08 seconds). During this period the semilunar valves have closed and the A-V valves are not yet opened. So the ventricles, relax as a closed chamber. There is no change in blood volume, so it is known as isovolumetric relaxation phase. Pressure continues to decrease and when it falls below atrial pressure the A-V valves open.
iii) Filling phase. The A-V valves open and the blood start flowing from the auricles to the ventricles, During the first filling phase (duration 0.1 second) the blood flows rapidly through the A-V valves. This causes vibrations in the valves producing third heart sound. After this the flow becomes slow (duration 0.18 seconds) and this phase is known as diastasis. In the last filling stage (duration 0.1 second) the flow of blood again becomes rapid. The A-V valves vibrate due to rapid flow of blood producing fourth heart sound.  The atrial and ventricular systole do not overlap but atrial diastole and
ventricular diastole overlap partly.

Unit 5: Thermoregulation & Osmoregulation 
Thermal regulation in camel and polar bear, Osmoregulation in aquatic vertebrates

Q.Distinguish between stenohaline and euryhaline fishes.

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Unit 6: Renal Physiology 
Structure of Kidney and its functional unit, Mechanism of urine formation, Regulation of acidbase   Balance

Q.What do you mean by RMIC?
Cells in the kidneys that appear to have a secretory function include not only the granular cells in the juxtaglomerular apparatus but also some of the cells in the interstitial tissue of the medulla. These cells are called renal medullary interstitial cells (RMICs) and are specialized fibroblast-like cells .
They contain lipid droplets and are a major site of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and prostaglandin synthase (PGES) expression. PGE 2 is the major prostanoid synthesized in the kidney and is an important paracrine regulator of salt and water homeostasis. PGE 2 is secreted by the RMICs, by the macula densa, and by cells in the collecting ducts; prostacyclin (PGI 2) and other prostaglandins are secreted by the arterioles and glomeruli.

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